Even though the job said that it had timed out, refreshing the page showed that it was successful, but with the error 'Content deployment job Full Deployment: Timed Out'. Clicking on this error shows the message 'The connection to the destination server was lost after the remote import job was started. The import job might still succeed. Content deployment will continue to attempt to reestablish a connection with the destination server.'
It would be good to have a repeatable, consistently successful deployment. Angus Logan from Microsoft suggested to change the timezone on the server to 1 hour prior, but that doesn't seem to have fixed the timeout problem.